- Overall political incorporation of the general population is relatively low as a result of this group’s historically low voting rates. Heavy naturalization and voter outreach efforts have provided this primarily foreign-born community with less than 1% of voters.
- 41% of Asians identify politically as Democrats, 41% as independents, and 16% as Republicans. Asians are above the national average in terms of the percentage of political independents (37% nationwide) and Democrats (34%), and below average in terms of the percentage of Republicans (27%). Asian Americans tend to live in traditionally Democratic states.
- Asian Americans are the most likely to identify themselves as politically liberal and are the only group that has a higher proportion of liberals than conservatives. They are more likely than the other groups to be moderates.
- Asian Americans tend to be less religious than those in other racial or ethnic groups. Just over half of Asians say religion is an important part of their daily lives, significantly lower than the percentage of whites, blacks, or Hispanics who say this.
- Asian Americans hold 12 of the 535 seats in Congress, or 2.2%. They represent Japanese, Hawaiian, Chinese, Filipino, South Asia, Bangladeshi, and multiracial ancestries.
- Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tagalog, and Vietnamese languages are all used in elections in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington state
- The percentage of voter turnout among Asian Americans in the 2008 national election (32.1%) was much lower compared with Caucasians (58.2%) and African Americans (60.8%).
- About 3,901,000 (55%) Asian Americans were registered to vote in the 2008 presidential election. Among registered Asian voters, 86% voted in the election.
- Voter turnout for Asian Americans was highest in the West for the 2008 presidential election, with 52.5% of citizens voting.
- Asian Americans identified overwhelmingly as Democrats in the poll but less than a third were contacted by the Democratic Party in the last 2 years, while 37% of Republicans said they heard a great deal from their party over the same period. Independents barely heard from either party even though they are usually prime targets.
- The Democratic National Committee party saw the Asian American demographic as a critical swing vote in California and Nevada. They hired a director specifically for Asian American and Pacific Islander outreach who will be focused on getting Asian American voters to the polls.
- The ethnic media play a key role in influencing Asian-Americans about politics. One-third of Asian Americans are informed about politics from Asian-language media and 28% said they would use Asian-language ballot materials.
- The politics of the People’s Republic of China take place in a framework of the single-party socialist republic. The leadership of the Communist Party is stated in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. State power within the People’s Republic of China (PRC) is exercised through the Communist Party of China, the Central People’s Government and their provincial and local counterparts.
- Constitutionally, the party’s highest body is the Party Congress, which is supposed to meet at least once every 5 years. The party elects the Central Committee and the primary organs of power are formally parts of the central committee.
THE PRIMARY ORGANS OF POWER IN THE COMMUNIST PARTY INCLUDE:
- The primary organs of state power are the National People’s Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions.
- Under the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about 2 weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. Most national legislation in China is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPCSC). Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Party’s Politburo Standing Committee.
- Currently, local government in the People’s Republic of China is structured in a hierarchy on four different levels. With the village being the grassroots (usually a hundred or so families), and not considered part of the hierarchy, local government advances through the township, county, prefecture or municipality, and the province as the geographical area of jurisdiction increases.
- The Communist Party of China created and leads the People’s Liberation Army. After the PRC was established in 1949, the PLA also became a state military. The state military system inherited and upholds the principle of the Communist Party’s absolute leadership over the people’s armed forces. The Party and the State jointly established the Central Military Commission that carries out the task of supreme military leadership over the armed forces.
FULL POLITBURO MEMBERS
- Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, President of the People’s Republic of China, 1st-ranked member of Politburo Standing Committee,
- Ma Kai, 4th Vice Premier
- Wang Qishan, 6th-ranked member of Politburo Standing Committee, Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
- Wang Huning, Director of the Policy Resarch Office of the CPC Central Committee
- Liu Yunshan, 5th-ranked member of Politburo Standing Committee, Top-ranked Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat, Chairman of the Central Guidance Commission for Building Spiritual Civilization, President of the Central Party School
- Liu Yandong, Second Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China(female)
- Liu Qibao, Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat, Head of the CPC Propaganda Department
- Xu Qiliang, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission
- Sun Chunlan, Party chief of Tianjin (female)
- Sun Zhengcai, Party chief of Chongqing
- Li Keqiang, 2nd-ranked member of Politburo Standing Committee, Premier of the People’s Republic of China
- Li Jianguo, Vice-Chairman and Secretary-General oft the National People’s Congress
- Li Yuanchao,Vice President of the People’s Republic of China
- Wang Yang, Third Vice Premier
- Zhang Chunxian, Party chief of Xinjiang
- Zhang Gaoli, 7th-ranked member of Politburo Standing Committee, First Vice Premier
- Zhang Dejiang, 3rd-ranked member of Politburo Standing Committee, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
- Fan Changlong, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission
- Meng Jianzhu, Head of the Central Politics and Law Commission of the Communist Party of China
- Zhao Leji, Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat, Head of the CPC Organization Department
- Hu Chunhua, Party chief of Guangdong
- Yu Zhengsheng, 4th-ranked member of Politburo Standing Committee and Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference
- Li Zhanshu, Secretary of CPC Central Secretariat, Chief of the General Office of the Communist Party of China
- Guo Jinlong, Party chief of Beijing
- Han Zheng, Party chief of Shanghai
- Nationality is granted at birth to children with at least one Chinese-national parent, with some exceptions. In general, naturalization or the obtainment of People’s Republic of China nationality is difficult. The Nationality Law prescribes only three conditions for the obtainment of PRC nationality (marriage to a PRC national is one, permanent residence is another). If a PRC citizen voluntarily obtains a foreign nationality, he or she loses Chinese nationality automatically. If the citizen then wishes to resume PRC nationality, the foreign nationality is no longer recognized.
- There are 56 ethnicities in the PRC. The PRC is officially a multi-ethnic state providing ethnic autonomy in the form of autonomous administrative entities in accordance with Section 6 of Chapter 3 (Articles 111-122) of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, and with more detail under the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional National Autonomy. By law, ethnic minorities receive advantages in areas such as population control, school admissions, government employment, and military recruitment. The PRC refers to all 56 official nationalities as equal members of the Chinese nation.
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